Key message: You don't have to like every person, but you have to be polite to everyone. People with respect should help each other and be role models for people without respect.
"As children we are taught (one hopes) to respect our parents, teachers, and elders, school rules and traffic laws, family and cultural traditions, other people's
feelings and rights, our country's flag and leaders, the truth and people's differing opinions. ... Although a wide variety of things are said to deserve respect, contemporary
philosophical interest in respect has overwhelmingly been focused on respect for persons, the idea that all persons should be treated with respect simply because they are persons." (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/respect,
Basically, there are two types of respect: respect with evaluation (appraisal respect) and respect without evaluation (Darwall, S. L. (1977). Two Kinds of Respect. Ethics, 88: 36–49). "The idea that all persons should be treated with respect simply because they are persons" is respect without evaluation. A driver respects a speed limit without evaluating whether it makes sense at this location. It is respect with evaluation when, for example, we respect someone because she has a special skill.
"Evaluation is always done in light of some qualitative standards, and different standards can apply to one and the same individual. Thus, appraisal respect is a matter of degree, depending on the extent to which the object meets the standards (so, we can respect someone more or less highly and respect one person more highly than another), and it can co-exist with (some) negative assessments of an individual or her traits (judged in light of other standards). We can have appraisal respect for someone's honesty even while thinking her lazy, ... we can respect an individual as an excellent ... carpenter yet regard her as far from a moral exemplar." (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/respect, 30.12.20)
In this text, the term "respect for persons" without evaluation shall be defined.
Nurses were interviewed what indicates respect:
"Respect To and From Colleagues
• Listen, be fully attentive, and truly hear.
• Treat others as you want to be treated.
• Acknowledge and express appreciation.
• Exhibit empathy and understanding.
• Display courtesy and consideration.
• Be accountable and professional.
Respect From Managers
• Acknowledge staff.
• Communicate and provide for information exchange.
• Ask staff for their opinions and for what they need.
• Be supportive, fair, consistent, and empathetic."
(Ulrich, B., Breugger, R., & Lefton, C. (2009). Respect: Beginning to define the concept in nursing. The Official Journal of the Center for American Nurses, 2(3), p. 8)
On the other hand, we must be able to identify disrespect:
"Although social media has enabled people to connect and interact with each other, it has also made people vulnerable to insults, humiliation, hate, bullying, facing threats from either known (e.g., colleagues, friends) or unknown (e.g., fans, clients, anonymous ones) individuals. ... We propose five contextual types of harassment in online communication on social media:
(Rezvan, M., Shekarpour, S., Alshargi, F., Thirunarayan, K., Shalin, V.L., Sheth,
A.: Analyzing and learning the language for different types of harassment. Plos one 15(3), p. 1-3)
The definition of a term names the class to which the term belongs and the essential characteristics that distinguish that term from the other terms in the class (Learn-Study-Work "How to define words").
Definition: Respect is tolerant, polite, honest behaviour towards others and compliance with social rules.
After the Second World War it was clear that such a disaster should not be allowed to happen again. That is why the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed in Paris on 10 December 1948:
"Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind ... Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations ...
1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. ...
Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status."
Nobody will doubt that tolerance is essential for respect.
"Every person has dignity, and enjoys the right to have dignity respected by her fellow humans ... The dignity that is protected by the Eighth Amendment, the Due Process Clause, and American constitutions, federal and state, is not social dignity, but human dignity, a property shared by all persons as such. It is not a dignity that is bestowed upon persons, either by other persons or by "the state" or "society" or some community or other, and that therefore can be taken away." (Markus Dirk Dubber (2004). Toward a Constitutional Law of Crime and Punishment, 55 Hastings L.J. 509)
Does tolerance mean that you are not allowed to criticize other people? No, everyone has the right to express their opinion openly and politely (see below). But once we have done so, if there is a dispute, we must let a court or other recognized authority decide. We must not try to harm the criticized person at our own discretion.
The basis for a polite coexistence of people in a state are the laws of the state, whereby it is assumed that these laws implement human rights.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights says:
"Article 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion ... Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression ... Article 29. ... In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. ..."
"Freedom of thought and concience" means that I do not have to like the actions of others. I am allowed to express my opinion and criticize their actions but I am limited in doing so because I have to recognize and respect the rights and freedoms of the others. This means that I have to be polite to other people.
Definition: Politeness is a set of rules of good behaviour.
Every culture has its own rules of politeness. The rules change over time. Example: In the past, it was normal for hospital managers not to exchange information with nurses. Today, the nurses consider it rude if the managers don't do that (see above).
The model for
honesty is a fair trial: the accused is treated politely. Everyone is obliged to tell the truth. The prosecutor presents the accusation. The accused may defend himself on all points. If he is guilty, he will get a just punishment.
When two people meet, there are three possibilities:
This classification looks simple, but it is not, because the line between respectful and disrespectful is fluid.
Those who have respect do not lie about others. When we criticize another person, we may be wrong. Therefore, we give the other person the opportunity to defend himself. People without respect sometimes try (openly or covertly) to harm others by bullying, harassment, or mobbing. Then they often tell lies about these other people behind their backs.
"We live most of our lives in communities, similar to lions who live in social groups rather than individualistic tigers who live alone most of the time. Those communities shape, and ought to shape, our moral and political judgments and we have a strong obligation to support and nourish the particular communities that provide meaning for our lives ..." (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/communitarianism/, 23.10.21)
"Man is a social animal not only by nature but also by necessity. It is said that needs and necessities makes man social. ... All his basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, health and education are fulfilled only within the framework of society. He also needs society for his social and mental developments." (https://file.scirp.org/Html/8-1760197_49227.htm, 23.10.21)
"The political economist Elinor Ostrom (who shared the Noble Prize for economics in 2009) observed the same phenomenon of spontaneous rule construction when people had collectively to manage common resources such as common land, fisheries, or water for irrigation. She found that people collectively construct rules about, say, how many cattle a person can graze, where, and when; who gets how much water, and what should be done when the resource is limited; who monitors whom, and which rules resolve disputes. These rules aren’t just invented by rulers and imposed from the top down – instead, they often arise, unbidden, from the needs of mutually agreeable social and economic interactions. The urge to overturn stifling, unjust or simply downright pointless rules is entirely justified. But without some rules – and some tendency for us to stick to them – society would slide rapidly into pandemonium [chaos]."(https://warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/knowledgecentre/science/psychology/world_without_rules, , 23.10.21)
A community cannot do without social rules, otherwise it cannot develop. Respect for a person must take into account that this person is always a member of a community. Anyone who does not respect the rules of this community shows no respect for the members of the community.
Example: Two friends live in the same apartment building. Each has his own apartment. One of them pollutes the staircase. The other is not happy about it. His friend lacks the necessary respect for the community of house residents.
Often conflicts arise because one person does not respect a community and another person gets upset about it, is angry and then rudely expresses his opinion. In such a situation it is helpful if there are clear rules that can be applied. In court, the judge can be polite to the accused because he knows that he will apply the law and will sentence him to a penalty if he is guilty.
Meaningful rules are the prerequisite for respect. In court, the judge can be polite to the defendant because he knows he will apply the law and sentence him if he is
"Every criminal law follows a simple principle. It can be broken down into the following formula: 'If someone does this and that, then he must expect this and that consequences.' Whoever engages in a certain prohibited conduct must expect a certain punishment. In criminal law, the prohibited conduct is called an offense, and the consequence is called a legal consequence." (www.koerperverletzung.com/tatbestandsmerkmale/, 09.04.22)
"In the broadest sense, a rule could be any statement which says that a certain conclusion must be valid whenever a certain premise is satisfied, i.e. any statement that could be read as a sentence of the form 'if ... then ...'." (Hitzler P., Krötzsch M., Rudolph, S. (2009). Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies. Chapman & Hall/CRC, p. 213 - 216)
Example: If the captain of a soccer team makes the "rule": "The announcements of the coach and captain are to be obeyed (no discussion)," then this is not a rule, but a wish. The corresponding rule might be, "If a player does not obey the coach's announcements, then he has to sit out a game."
Towards people who have no respect and lie, we should say our opinion without discussing with them or keep silent if it is dangerous to express our opinion. Respect does not mean accepting
someone for who or what he or she is. It's just that arguing with a disrespectful person is useless and causes only trouble (you can't convince a liar with
arguments). We should avoid contact with such persons if possible (avoidance of stress). Nevertheless, we also treat such persons with respect, that is, we are polite to them
(because we are polite to all human beings). When they realize we are avoiding them, that's what annoys them the most. They need to realize that disrespectful behavior has no long-term
benefit because only respectful people trust and help each other.
"Dishonesty creates a climate of wariness that carries corrosive consequences for everyone. Social trust is a fragile value; lies initiate its disintegration. We all pay a price in reduced willingness to trust others and to enjoy the benefits that such trust makes possible." (Smith, T. (2003). The metaphysical case for honesty. The Journal of Value Inquiry, 37, p. 517)
Another option to "convince" disrespectful people is to gather evidence of a person's disrespectful behavior and then make the behavior public. Disrespectful people don't like that at all.
Nobody is perfect, which is why misunderstandings sometimes occur. When a conflict arises, we should try to check objectively whether our point of view is correct and whether we have behaved respectfully. In the same way, we should check if perhaps there is a misunderstanding on the part of the other person. If all persons involved in a conflict have "good will", then mistakes can be forgiven and a compromise can be found to resolve the conflict.
The philosopher Emanuel Kant says:
"Intelligence, wit, judgment, and the other talents of the mind, however they may be named, or courage, resolution, perseverance, as qualities of temperament, are undoubtedly good and desirable in many respects; but these gifts of nature may also become extremely bad and mischievous if the will which is to make use of them, and which, therefore, constitutes what is called character, is not good. ... I am never to act otherwise than so that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law." (www.woldww.net/classes/Information_Ethics/Kant-notes_and_excerpts.htm, 05.06.21)
So other people
should also be judged by the will behind their actions.